Main Article Content


Globally, teenage pregnancy has persistently posed serious challenges. Young girls giving birth earlier has serious public health and social concerns. About 95% teenage pregnancies occur in developing countries, and this has a long-term implication for girls on their health, families and communities. However, multilevel predictors of teenage pregnancy are not well studied yet. Several studies had focused mainly on the individual level characteristics but overlooked the socioeconomic and health related factors contributing to teenage pregnancy.  The main aim of this study was to identify the factors contributing to teenage pregnancy in Birim North district to help design appropriate public health intervention program to mitigate it in the district. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 176 teenagers during the study period in the Birim North district. Five communities were randomly selected from each sub-district and respondents were selected using the simple random sampling technique. A structured questionnaire with socio-demographic factors, knowledge of reproductive health, socio–cultural and health-related factors was used to elicit responses from the respondents. Data were coded and entered into Epi Data Manager Version and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. A total of 176 teenage girls participated in the study. Bivariable analysis showed that all the variables except alcohol consumption were significantly associated with teenage pregnancy. Among the behavioural factors assessed, multivariable analyses showed that having multiple sexual partners and irregular contraceptive use increased the likelihood of teenage pregnancy. Among familial factors, being married was found to increase the likelihood of teenage pregnancy. Also, peer pressure, sexual abuse, and lack of control over sex was observed to increase the likelihood of teenage pregnancy. Demographic, behavioral, familial, and social factors are important predictors of teenage pregnancy in the Birim North District. Interventions focussing on retaining pregnant and married girls at school, information on the sexual and reproductive health of teenage girls, improving access to and information about contraceptive use among teenage girls as well as improving the socio-economic status of households and making adolescent health programs a part of regular school curriculum could improve knowledge gaps in sexual reproductive health services among teenagers. These measures would go a long way to minimize the menace of teenage pregnancy in low-income settings in Ghana.


Knowledge Artisans Occupational Health Health and Safety Ghana

Article Details

How to Cite
Achiaa, M. (2023). Factors Influencing Teenage Pregnancy in the Birim North District in the Eastern Region of Ghana. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies and Innovative Research, 11(1), 29–38.


  1. Ahorlu, C.K., Pfeiffer, C. & Obrist, B. (2015). Socio-cultural and economic factors influencing adolescents ’ resilience against the threat of teenage pregnancy : a cross-sectional survey in Socio-cultural and economic factors influencing adolescents ’ resilience against the threat of teenage pregnancy. Reproductive Health.
  2. Donatus, L. (2018). Factors associated with adolescent school girl’s pregnancy in Kumbo East Health District North West region Cameroon. PanAfrican Medical Journal, 86 (88), 1–11.
  3. GMHS. (2017). Ghana health service 2016 annual reporT. June.
  4. Islam, M. M., Islam, K. & Hasan, M. S. (2017). Adolescent motherhood in Bangladesh : Trends and determinants. Plos One, 1–14.
  5. Kassa, G. M., Arowojolu, A.O. & Odukogbe, A. A. (2019). Trends and determinants of teenage childbearing in Ethiopia : evidence from the 2000 to 2016 demographic and health surveys. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, 1–13.
  6. Kassa, G. M., Arowojolu, A. O., Odukogbe, A. A., & Yalew, A. W. (2018). Prevalence and determinants of adolescent pregnancy in Africa : a systematic review and Meta-analysis. Reproductive Health, 1–17.
  7. Mardi, A., Ebadi, A., Shahbazi, S., Esmaelzade, S., & Moghadam, Z. B. (2018). Factors influencing the use of contraceptives through the lens of teenage women : a qualitative study in Iran. BMC Public Health, 1–8.
  8. Mejia, J. R., Estares, Á. J. Q., Rondon, A. J. F., Beltran, G. R., Sulca, I. L. A., Hilario, E. P., Cochachi, J. E. B., & Huamanchumo, C. J. T. (2021). Determinants of adolescent pregnancy in indigenous communities from the Peruvian central jungle : a case – control study. Reproductive Health, 1–10.
  9. Mushwana, L., Monareng, L., Richter, S., & Muller, H. (2015). Factors influencing the adolescent pregnancy rate in the Greater Giyani Municipality, Limpopo Province – South Africa. International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences, 2, 10–18.
  10. Nang-bayi, J., Wie, S. F., Siepaal, V., Kuufira, P., & Der, E. M. (2021). Factors Associated with Rising Trend in Teenage Pregnancy within the West Gonja Municipality of the Savannah Region of Ghana. Scientific Research Publishing, 1273–1290.
  11. Ochen, A. M., Chi, P. C. & Lawoko, S. (2019). Predictors of teenage pregnancy among girls aged 13 – 19 years in Uganda : a community based case-control study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 1–14.
  12. UNICEF. (2021). Child protection baseline research. UNICEF Annual Results Report. Profile - Eastern Region.pdf
  13. WHO. (2020). Adolescent pregnancy fact sheet. World Health Organization.
  14. Worku, M. G., Tessema, Z. T., Teshale, A. B., Tesema, G. A., & Yeshaw, Y. (2021). Prevalence and associated factors of adolescent pregnancy ( 15 – 19 years ) in East Africa : a multilevel analysis. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 9, 1–8.
  15. Yakubu, I. (2018). Determinants of adolescent pregnancy in sub-Saharan Africa : a systematic review. Reproductive Health.
  16. Yussif, A., Lassey, A., Ganyaglo, G. Y., Kantelhardt, E. J., & Kielstein, H. (2017). The long-term effects of adolescent pregnancies in a community in Northern Ghana on subsequent pregnancies and births of the young mothers. Reproductive Health, 1–7.