Main Article Content


This study investigates the potential sites for Small Hydroelectric Power (SHP) generation along the course of the Black Volta River. The growing demand for clean and sustainable energy sources has led to renewed interest in harnessing hydropower resources. The objective of this research is to identify and assess suitable locations for SHP development, taking into consideration factors such as river morphology, flow characteristics, topography, and environmental impacts. By employing a systematic approach and utilizing geospatial analysis, the study aims to contribute valuable insights into the feasibility and viability of implementing SHP projects within this region. The outcomes of this research could provide a foundation for future decision-making processes regarding the sustainable utilization of hydroelectric potential along the Black Volta River while minimizing ecological and social implications.


Power Black Volta River Hydropower Generation Sustainable Energy Geospatial Analysis Feasibility Assessment Environmental Impact Renewable Energy River Morphology

Article Details

How to Cite
Ali Dayinday, S. (2023). Prospective Small Hydroelectric Power Sites along the Black Volta River. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies and Innovative Research, 11(3), 1530–1560.


  1. Allison, M.A., Nittrouer, C.A., Ogston, A.S., Mullarney, J.C., and Nguyen, T.T., 2017, Sedimentation and Survival of the Mekong Delta A Case Study of Decreased Sediment Supply and Accelerating Rates of Relative Sea Level Rise: Oceanography, v. 30, p. 98-109.
  2. Anthony, E.J., Almar, R., and Aagaard, T., 2016, Recent shoreline changes in the Volta River delta, West Africa: the roles of natural processes and human impacts: African Journal of Aquatic Science, v. 41, p. 81-87.
  3. Awotwi, A., Yeboah, F., and Kumi, M., 2015, Assessing the impact of land cover changes on water balance components of White Volta Basin in West Africa: Water and Environment Journal, v. 29, p. 259-267.
  4. Barry, B., Obuobie, E., Andreini, M., Andah, W., and Pluquet, M., 2005, The Volta River Basin synthesis. Comparative study of river basin development and management. Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture: Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI).
  5. Bussi, G., Janes, V., Whitehead, P.G., Dadson, S.J., and Holman, I.P., 2017, Dynamic response of land use and river nutrient concentration to long-term climatic changes: Science of the Total Environment, v. 590, p. 818-831.
  6. Crossman, J., Futter, M.N., Oni, S.K., Whitehead, P.G., Jin, L., Butterfield, D., Baulch, H.M., and Dillon, P.J., 2013, Impacts of climate change on hydrology and water quality: Future proofing management strategies in the Lake Simcoe watershed, Canada: Journal of Great Lakes Research, v. 39, p. 19-32.
  7. Dickson, K.B., and Benneh, G., 1988, A new geography of Ghana: Longman Group UK Limited. Longman House, Burnt Mill, Harlow, Essex, England.
  8. Ericson, J.P., Vorosmarty, C.J., Dingman, S.L., Ward, L.G., and Meybeck, M., 2006, Effective sea-level rise and deltas: Causes of change and human dimension implications: Global and Planetary Change, v. 50, p. 63-82.
  9. Fang, G.H., Yang, J., Chen, Y.N., and Zammit, C., 2015, Comparing bias correction methods in downscaling meteorological variables for a hydrologic impact study in an arid area in China: Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., v. 19, p. 2547-2559.
  10. Futter, M.N., Butterfield, D., Cosby, B.J., Dillon, P.J., Wade, A.J., and Whitehead, P.G., 2007, Modeling the mechanisms that control in-stream dissolved organic carbon dynamics in upland and forested catchments: Water Resources Research, v. 43, p. W02424, doi:10.1029/2006WR004960.
  11. Gu, C.L., Hu, L.Q., Zhang, X.M., Wang, X.D., and Guo, J., 2011, Climate change and urbanization in the Yangtze River Delta: Habitat International, v. 35, p. 544-552.
  12. Gyau-Boakye, P., and Tumbulto, J.W., 2000, The Volta Lake and Declining Rainfall and Streamflows in the Volta River Basin: Environment, Development and Sustainability, v. 2, p. 1-11.
  13. Hill, C., Nicholls, R.J., Whitehead, P.W., Dunn, F., Haque, A., Appeaning Addo, K., and Raju, P.V., 2018, Delineating Climate Change Impacts on Biophysical Conditions in Populous Deltas Science of the Total Environment.
  14. Hoang, L.P., Lauri, H., Kummu, M., Koponen, J., van Vliet, M.T.H., Supit, I., Leemans, R., Kabat, P., and Ludwig, F., 2016, Mekong River flow and hydrological extremes under climate change: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, v. 20, p. 3027-3041.
  15. IPCC, 2013a, Annex I: Atlas of Global and Regional Climate Projections: [van Oldenborgh, G.J., M. Collins, J. Arblaster, J.H. Christensen, J. Marotzke, S.B. Power, M. Rummukainen and T. Zhou (eds.)]. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
  16. IPCC, 2013b, Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
  17. IPCC, 2014, Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2014 Mitigation of Climate Change Working Group III Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Cambridge, Cambridge Univ Press.
  18. Jackson-Blake, L.A., Wade, A.J., Futter, M.N., Butterfield, D., Couture, R.M., Cox, B.A., Crossman, J., Ekholm, P., Halliday, S.J., Jin, L., Lawrence, D.S.L., Lepisto, A., Lin, Y., Rankinen, K., and Whitehead, P.G., 2016, The INtegrated CAtchment model of phosphorus dynamics (INCA-P): Description and demonstration of new model structure and equations: Environmental Modelling & Software, v. 83, p. 356-386.
  19. Janes, T., McGrath, F., Macadam, I., and Jones, R., 2018, High-resolution climate projections for South Asia to inform climate impacts and adaptation studies in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna and Mahanadi deltas: Science of the Total Environment.
  20. Jin, L., Whitehead, P., Siegel, D.I., and Findlay, S., 2011, Salting our landscape: An integrated catchment model using readily accessible data to assess emerging road salt contamination to streams: Environmental Pollution, v. 159, p. 1257-1265.
  21. Jin, L., Whitehead, P.G., Baulch, H.M., Dillon, P.J., Butterfield, D., Oni, S.K., Futter, M.N., Crossman, J., and O'Connor, E.M., 2013, Modelling phosphorus in Lake Simcoe and its subcatchments: scenario analysis to assess alternative management strategies: Inland Waters, v. 3, p. 207-220.
  22. Jin, L., Whitehead, P.G., Futter, M.N., and Lu, Z.L., 2012, Modelling the impacts of climate change on flow and nitrate in the River Thames: assessing potential adaptation strategies: Hydrology Research, v. 43, p. 902-916.
  23. Kebede, A.S., Nicholls, R.J., Allan, A., Arto, I., Cazcarro, I., Fernandes, J.A., Hill, C.T., Hutton, C.W., Kay, S., Lazar, A.N., Macadam, I., Palmer, M., Suckall, N., Tompkins, E.L., Vincent, K., and Whitehead, P.G., 2018, Applying the Global RCP–SSP–SPA Scenario Framework at Sub-National Scale: A Multi-Scale and Participatory Scenario Approach: Science of the Total Environment, v. DECCMA Special Issue.
  24. Lacombe, G., McCartney, M., and Forkuor, G., 2012, Drying climate in Ghana over the period 1960-2005: evidence from the resampling-based Mann-Kendall test at local and regional levels: Hydrological Sciences Journal-Journal Des Sciences Hydrologiques, v. 57, p. 1594-1609.
  25. Lazar, A.N., Butterfield, D., Futter, M.N., Rankinen, K., Thouvenot-Korppoo, M., Jarritt, N., Lawrence, D.S.L., Wade, A.J., and Whitehead, P.G., 2010, An assessment of the fine sediment dynamics in an upland river system: INCA-Sed modifications and implications for fisheries: Science of the Total Environment, v. 408, p. 2555-2566.
  26. Lu, Q., Whitehead, P.G., Bussi, G., Futter, M.N., and Nizzetto, L., 2017, Modelling metaldehyde in catchments: a River Thames case-study: Environmental Science-Processes & Impacts, v. 19, p. 586-595.
  27. McCartney, M., Forkuor, G., Sood, A., Amisigo, B., Hattermann, F., and Muthuwatta, L., 2012, The water resource implications of changing climate in the Volta River Basin: Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). 40p. (IWMI Research Report 146). .
  28. Mul, M., Obuobie, E., Appoh, R., Kankam-Yeboah, K., Bekoe-Obeng, E., Amisigo, B., Logah, F.Y., Ghansah, B., and McCartney, M., 2015, Water resources assessment of the Volta River Basin: Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). 78p. (IWMI Working Paper 166). doi: 10.5337/2015.220.
  29. Nepal, S., and Shrestha, A.B., 2015, Impact of climate change on the hydrological regime of the Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins: a review of the literature: International Journal of Water Resources Development, v. 31, p. 201-218.
  30. Nicholls, R.J., A.S., K., Allan, A., Arto, I., Cazcarro, I., Fernandes, J.A., Hill, C.T., Hutton, C.W., Kay, S., Lawn, J., Lázár, A.N., Macadam, I., Whitehead, P.G., and al, e., 2017, The DECCMA scenario framework: A multi-scale and participatory approach to explore the future migration and adaptation in deltas: DECCMA Working Paper, Deltas, Vulnerability and Climate Change: Migration and Adaptation, IDRC Project Number 107642. Available online at:, date accessed
  31. Nicholls, R.J., Hutton, C.W., Lazar, A.N., Allan, A., Adger, W.N., Adams, H., Wolf, J., Rahman, M., and Salehin, M., 2016, Integrated assessment of social and environmental sustainability dynamics in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta, Bangladesh: Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, v. 183, p. 370-381.
  32. Oguntunde, P.G., 2004, Evapotranspiration and complementarity relations in the water balance of the Volta basin: Field measurements and GIS-based regional estimates: Ecology and Development Series No. 22. Göttingen, Germany: Cuvillier Verlag. 169p.
  33. Owusu, K., Waylen, P., and Qiu, Y., 2008, Changing rainfall inputs in the Volta basin: implications for water sharing in Ghana: GeoJournal, v. 71, p. 201-210.
  34. Pushpalatha, R., Perrin, C., Le Moine, N., and Andreassian, V., 2012, A review of efficiency criteria suitable for evaluating low-flow simulations: Journal of Hydrology, v. 420, p. 171-182.
  35. Rankinen, K., Granlund, K., Futter, M.N., Butterfield, D., Wade, A.J., Skeffington, R., Arvola, L., Veijalainen, N., Huttunen, I., and Lepisto, A., 2013, Controls on inorganic nitrogen leaching from Finnish catchments assessed using a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the INCA-N model: Boreal Environment Research, v. 18, p. 373-386.
  36. Wade, A.J., Butterfield, D., Lawrence, D.S., Bärlund, I., Ekholm, P., Lepistö, A., Yli-Halla, M., Rankinen, K., Granlund, K., Durand, P., and Kaste, Ø., 2009, The Integrated Catchment Model of Phosphorus (INCA-P), a new structure to simulate particulate and soluble phosphorus transport in European catchments, Deliverable 185 to the EU Euro-limpacs project, UCL, London, pp 67.
  37. Wade, A.J., Durand, P., Beaujouan, V., Wessel, W.W., Raat, K.J., Whitehead, P.G., Butterfield, D., Rankinen, K., and Lepisto, A., 2002, A nitrogen model for European catchments: INCA, new model structure and equations: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, v. 6, p. 559-582.
  38. Whitehead, P.G., Barbour, E., Futter, M.N., Sarkar, S., Rodda, H., Caesar, J., Butterfield, D., Jin, L., Sinha, R., Nicholls, R., and Salehin, M., 2015a, Impacts of climate change and socio-economic scenarios on flow and water quality of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river systems: low flow and flood statistics: Environmental Science-Processes & Impacts, v. 17, p. 1057-1069.
  39. Whitehead, P.G., Wilson, E.J., and Butterfield, D., 1998a, A semi-distributed Integrated Nitrogen model for multiple source assessment in Catchments (INCA): Part I - model structure and process equations: Science of the Total Environment, v. 210, p. 547-558.
  40. Whitehead, P.G., Wilson, E.J., Butterfield, D., and Seed, K., 1998b, A semi-distributed integrated flow and nitrogen model for multiple source assessment in catchments (INCA): Part II - application to large river basins in south Wales and eastern England: Science of the Total Environment, v. 210, p. 559-583.