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More recently, there has been a greater focus on nutrition and physical activity as key determinants of health. Available evidence suggests that community of residence drive unhealthy diets and sedentary behaviour (e.g. increased physical inactivity); unhealthy diet and sedentary behaviour are major risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This single-site hospital-based study assessed rural/urban variations in diabetes self-care practices in a sample of Ghanaian adults with type II diabetes. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design. Respondents were recruited from the Diabetes/Hypertension clinic of the East Gonja Municipal Hospital in Salaga, Ghana, through systematic sampling. Structured, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect data for the study. The primary data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25. One hundred and sixty-eight (168) type II diabetes patients participated in the study. More than half of them were residents of rural communities (50.6%). Overall, adherence to medication, diet, and physical activity were 51.8%, 41.8%, and 56.0%, respectively. Controlling for age, occupation, and monthly income, residents of urban communities were more likely to adhere to prescribed anti-diabetic medications compared to those in rural communities (AOR 3.70; 95% CI 1.02, 8.11). On the contrary, residence in a rural community was positively associated with adherence to dietary recommendations (AOR 4.21; 95% CI 1.73, 9.54). The current findings highlight the need for diabetes self-management education and support (DSMES) programmes in the East Gonja Municipality to facilitate the knowledge sharing, decision-making, and skills mastery for diabetes self-care.


Rural Urban Diabetes Self-care Ghana Type II diabetes

Article Details

Author Biography

Richmond Nketia, East Gonja Municipal Hospital, Salaga

Department of Medicine

East Gonja Municipal Hospital

Salaga, Ghana

How to Cite
Nketia, R. (2022). Rural/Urban Variations in Diabetes Self-Care in a Sample of Ghanaian Adults with Type II Diabetes: a Study in the East Gonja Municipality. International Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies and Innovative Research, 10(3), 1574–1588.


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