International Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies and Innovative Research <ul> <li><strong>Editor in Chief: <a href="">Prof. Daniel Obeng-Ofori</a></strong></li> <li><strong>ISSN: </strong><a href="">2737-7172 (O). 2737-7180 (P)</a></li> <li><strong>Print Issue: </strong>Available</li> <li><strong>Frequency</strong> (<strong>Bi-Monthly</strong>) </li> <li><strong>NASS Rating:</strong> 4.47<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="" /></a></li> <li><strong>Start year:</strong> 2020</li> <li><strong>Subject: </strong>Multidisciplinary</li> <li><strong>Submission: </strong>Open</li> <li><strong>IC Value:</strong> 42.91%</li> <li><strong>Peer Review: </strong>Double Blind</li> </ul> Catholic University of Ghana en-US International Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies and Innovative Research 2737-7172 <p>The submitting author warrants that the submission is original and that she/he is the author of the submission together with the named co-authors; to the extent the submission incorporates text passages, figures, data, or other material from the work of others, the submitting author has obtained any necessary permission. By submitting an article the author grants this journal the non-exclusive right to publish it. The author retains the copyright and the publishing rights for his article without any restrictions. </p> A Review on Agricultural Biotechnology in Africa, Current State and the Future Prospects <p>The exploding global population is presenting a new challenge of providing food for further billions of people against the backdrop of the challenges of already existing hunger and malnutrition, climate change, emerging destructive crop and animal diseases, and the pressure being exerted on arable lands by several other anthropological demands. Providing food for the world in the foreseeable future, therefore, requires the revolutionization of the agricultural sector as it stands today. Agricultural biotechnology has evolved over three decades and has presented itself as a critical avenue for addressing the perennial food production insecurity situations; particularly in Africa and other food-insecure regions of the world. This study sought to review agricultural biotechnology in Africa by assessing its current state and the future prospects of the technology on the African continent. The adoption and utilization of biotechnology in Africa have been faced with serious challenges of ethical, religious, environmental contamination, and health risks issues. Adoption of biotechnology and genetically modified (GM) products have only been achieved in a few countries in Africa on a small-scale basis and under a few selected crops. Inadequate legislation, unenhanced public education, and the spread of misconceptions by anti-GM technology activists remain a strong challenge to navigate around for the smooth adoption of the technology on the African continent. Smallholder farmers in Africa also harbor serious apprehension over seed monopoly and erosion of the traditional seed quality with neo-colonial intentions by the developers of the technology. Anti-GM sentiments based on misconceptions are deeply rooted in many African countries, heightening fear of its adoption. A stronger and more elaborate public education strategy that highlights the benefits of biotechnology and assures the people of the risk levels of the technology, and further research to alleviate public anxiety is critical for the adoption of biotechnology and GM products in Africa. &nbsp;</p> Lydia Nkansah Copyright (c) 2022 Lydia Nkansah 2022-07-12 2022-07-12 10 1 1383 1391 10.53075/Ijmsirq/687899867 Contributing Factors of Anemia in Pregnancy in the Twifo Atti-Morkwa District in Ghana <p>The study determined the factors influencing anemia among pregnant women in the Twifo Atti-Morkwa District of Ghana. This study employed a hospital-based cross-sectional study design to assess the risk factors for anemia among pregnant women. About 430 pregnant women attending antenatal care services in all health facilities in the Twifo Atti-Morkwa district were used as respondents for the study. Data were collected quantitatively using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered using a face-to-face interview process. The data were analyzed using STATA version 15 (StataCorp, College Station, Texas 77845, USA). Pearson’s chi-square and binary logistic regression were used to find the variables significantly associated with anemia in pregnancy at a p-value of 0.05. The findings showed the respondents were within the age range of 15 to 45 years, with a mean age of 26.36 years. Only 49.07% of them had visited ANC at least 4 times. Additionally, 50.93% of them started ANC attendance in the first trimester of their pregnancy. The majority of them (89.77%) attended ANC regularly. Most of them indicated that they took routine ANC drugs, and among them, 91.75% took iron supplements, 87.63% took folic acid, and 49.74% took Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, and 66.75% took multivitamins. Despite the regular ANC attendance, high intake of iron and folic acid supplements, and high utilization of ITN, the prevalence of anemia in pregnancy at 36 weeks of gestation in the Twifo Atti-Morkwa district was high. Anemia at 36 weeks of gestation was significantly associated with factors such as the number of ANC visits, gravidity, gestational age at the start of ANC, malaria infection, and intake of food supplements. To address the burden of anemia in pregnancy in the district, it is vital to note that supplements alone are not adequate. There, therefore, is a need for intensive education on other strategies such as deworming, nutrition, and adherence to Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine to improve general health in women before and during pregnancy.&nbsp;</p> Felix Fiavor Prudence Portia Mwini-Nyaledzigbor George Hector Amonoo Yaw Ofori Copyright (c) 2022 Felix Fiavor, Prudence Portia Mwini-Nyaledzigbor, George Hector Amonoo, Yaw Ofori 2022-07-11 2022-07-11 10 1 1345 1370 10.53075/Ijmsirq/65657865 Knowledge, Attitude, Utilization And Barriers to Emergency Contraception among Reproductive-Age Women Between 15 and 24 Years in Ghana’s Poor and Low-Resource Settings: The Case of East-Gonja Municipality <p>Emergency contraceptive (EC) is a family planning method that can be used after the failure of barrier contraceptive methods, sexual assault, and/or missed oral contraceptive pills to prevent pregnancy. Improving access and use of modern contraceptives such as EC has been suggested, among another healthcare continuum, as the solution to the global population dilemma. However, there is a paucity of data on modern contraceptive use and associated factors in Ghana’s impoverished and low-resource settings. If this continues into the future, the effective planning and implementation of sexual and reproductive programs in these regions could be hampered. This study, therefore, sought to examine the level of knowledge on EC, attitude towards EC, utilization, and barriers to EC among reproductive-age women between 15 and 24 years in the East-Gonja Municipality of Ghana. The study was conducted in Salaga, the administrative capital of the East-Gonja Municipality, using a school-based, descriptive cross-sectional study design. The study population comprised 295 female students from Salaga Senior High School (SHS). Data were collected using structured, self-administered questionnaires, and descriptive analyses were performed to determine respondents’ level of knowledge, attitude, utilization, and barriers to EC. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25 was used to analyze the data. About 62% of the respondents had inadequate knowledge about EC. More than half (56.5%) of the sample who reported prior awareness of EC showed a negative attitude toward EC. Less than half (48.5%) of the respondents who indicated had ever engaged in vaginal intercourse with a man reported ever-use of EC. The major reason for EC non-use was fear of stigma (62.0%). Although the majority of the respondents were aware of EC, most of them demonstrated inadequate knowledge and poor attitude toward EC, the former being a major reason for EC non-use. Our findings suggest the need for comprehensive Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) education and improved access to modern contraceptives among adolescents and youth in the East-Gonja municipality.</p> Richmond Nketia Uzairu Shaibu Daniel Atta-Nyarko Francisca Naana Arthur Austin Gideon Adobasom-Anane Yaw Boakye Nketiah Copyright (c) 2022 Richmond Nketia, Uzairu Shaibu, Daniel Atta-Nyarko, Francisca Naana Arthur, Austin Gideon Adobasom-Anane, Yaw Boakye Nketiah 2022-08-27 2022-08-27 10 1 1392 1396 10.53075/Ijmsirq/68743045656 Street Trading and its Associated Risks in the Tamale Metropolitan Area of the Northern Region, Ghana <p>The study examined the typologies, negotiation for space, and the inherent risks in street trading in the Tamale Metropolis of the Northern Region of Ghana. To achieve these objectives, a mixed-method approach was employed to carry out the study. The simple random sampling technique was used to select respondents. Questionnaires and interview guides were used to collect data from fifty-six (56) respondents and twenty-five (25) key informants respectively. The analysis of the data gathered revealed that there were three main typologies of street traders in Tamale Metropolis and these were permanent, intermittent, and mobile street traders. It was also revealed that street traders in Tamale were exposed to various risks such as harassment by city authorities, theft, and exposure to health hazards. A number of driving factors such as lack of capital, lack of employment, difficulties in securing stores, and poverty among others were responsible for street trading in the Tamale Metropolis. The Government of Ghana through the Ministry of Trades and Industry and the District Assembly should provide a congenial environment for street trading in the Tamale Metropolis to ensure the safety of the traders.</p> Atambeogo, S. Seniwoliba, A.J Copyright (c) 2022 Atambeogo, S., Seniwoliba, A.J 2022-07-12 2022-07-12 10 1 1371 1382 10.53075/Ijmsirq/67647246 Factors Influencing Late Initiation of Antenatal Visits Among Pregnant Women in the Dormaa Central Municipality in the Bono Region of Ghana <p>Skilled and qualified healthcare professionals provide antenatal care to expectant mothers. Antenatal care identifies, prevents, and manages pregnancy-related problems. This study evaluated the prevalence and factors related to late antenatal care in the Dormaa Central Municipality in the Bono Region of Ghana. This health facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Municipality from March 2022 to July 2022. A total of 400 pregnant women were enlisted using a convenience sampling technique and made to answer a structured questionnaire developed for the study. Data were processed with SPSS version 26 to conduct descriptive and inferential statistics and identify the relationship between dependent and independent variables. The study found that the prevalence of late initiation of antenatal care was 42.5%. The education level of pregnant women influenced late antenatal care initiation. Pregnant women's gravidity and parity level were also associated with late antenatal care initiation. Pregnant women who were uninformed of the correct time and husbands' influence were also associated with late antenatal care initiation in the Municipality. The study concluded that most pregnant women who started antenatal care late did so because of their level of education, obstetric circumstances, unawareness, and husbands' influence, which have significant health consequences on the mother and unborn child. It is important that health policymakers and implementers in the country promote and expand health educational programmes for pregnant women to raise their antenatal care visit awareness. Husbands should be encouraged to help with early antenatal care initiation of their pregnant wives. In addition, a qualitative investigation should be carried out to fully understand the reasons that delay pregnant women's commencement of antenatal care in the Dormaa Central Municipality.</p> Maxwell Owusu Peprah Freda Agyemang Yeboah Mark Danquah Copyright (c) 2022 Mathias Justice Akanzabwon Asaarik , David A. Aladago , Akwasi Boakye-Yiadom, Faiza Tanko, Felix Fiavor, Paul Armah Aryee 2022-04-29 2022-04-29 10 1 1419 1425 10.53075/Ijmsirq/665775376545 Association Between Nutritional Knowledge and Dietary Compliance among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients at the Bono Regional Hospital, Sunyani, Ghana <p>The study assessed nutritional knowledge and dietary compliance of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients in the context of diabetes self-care, and the association between nutritional knowledge and dietary compliance. A report from a recent population-based study indicates that between 3.3% and 6% of Ghanaian adults are living with diabetes mellitus (DM) and this is projected to reach 820,000 by 2035. Diet therapy and self-care form an integral part of T2DM management, however, little is known about the nutritional knowledge and dietary habit of DM patients accessing healthcare at the Bono Regional Hospital in Ghana. This study sought to fill the existing knowledge gap which is critical to addressing the challenges associated with the management of T2DM. A hospital-based, descriptive cross-sectional study design was employed to assess nutritional knowledge and dietary compliance of T2DM patients in the context of diabetes self-care, and the association between them. The study was carried out at the Bono Regional Hospital in Sunyani, Ghana. Respondents were recruited using systematic sampling and semi-structured, interview-administered questionnaires were used to collect data for the study. The primary data for the study were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25. A total of 140 T2DM patients responded to our questionnaires. The majority of the respondents (98.6%) were above 35 years of age. Females constituted 66.4% of the total sample. About one-third of the respondents were farmers (36.4%). Based on our specified criteria, the majority of respondents (52.1%) demonstrated good nutritional knowledge, however, only 39.3% of them showed good dietary compliance. A Pearson’s chi-square test (with Yates’ Continuity Correction) showed a statistically significant association between nutritional knowledge and overall dietary compliance, χ<sup>2</sup> (1, n = 140) = 10.23, P = .001, phi = .27. Also, nutritional knowledge was associated with consumption of complex carbohydrates χ<sup>2</sup> (1, n = 140) = 7.43, P = .009, phi = -.23, low-fat diet χ<sup>2</sup> (1, n = 140) = 8.51, P = .005, phi = -.274, and controlled portions of proteins χ<sup>2</sup> (1, n = 140) = 10.67, P = .002, phi = .24. Dietary compliance was poor despite good nutritional knowledge. However, there was a significant association between good nutritional knowledge and overall dietary compliance. Therefore, comprehensive nutritional education, tailored to patients’ needs, and socio-cultural and economic situations could help to promote adherence to dietary recommendations among T2DM patients accessing healthcare at the Bono Regional Hospital.</p> Richmond Nketia Austin Gideon Adobasom-Anane Daniel Atta-Nyarko Francisca Naana Arthur Samiat Mahama Simon Agongo Copyright (c) 2022 Richmond Nketia, Austin Gideon Adobasom-Anane, Daniel Atta-Nyarko, Francisca Naana Arthur, Samiat Mahama, Simon A. Azure 2022-08-27 2022-08-27 10 1 1397 1418 10.53075/Ijmsirq/6867556758